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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September 2016
Volume 144 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 307-490

Online since Friday, January 20, 2017

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EDITORIALS  

Erectile dysfunction: A present day coronary disease risk equivalent Highly accessed article p. 307
Rohit Kapoor, Aditya Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198669  PMID:28139526
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Predictors of mortality in chronic rheumatic heart disease p. 311
KK Talwar, Abhinit Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198672  PMID:28139527
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COMMENTARIES Top

Polymorphism of p53 in cancer prognosis p. 314
Radhakrishna Madhavan Pillai, S Asha Nair
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198683  PMID:28139528
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Early natural menopause - a marker of adverse life situations in women across the world: Not unique in Indian women p. 317
Rita Isaac
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198680  PMID:28139529
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies Highly accessed article p. 319
Vedantam Rajshekhar
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198686  PMID:28139530
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.
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A review on detection methods used for foodborne pathogens p. 327
B Priyanka, Rajashekhar K Patil, Sulatha Dwarakanath
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198677  PMID:28139531
Foodborne pathogens have been a cause of a large number of diseases worldwide and more so in developing countries. This has a major economic impact. It is important to contain them, and to do so, early detection is very crucial. Detection and diagnostics relied on culture-based methods to begin with and have developed in the recent past parallel to the developments towards immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and molecular biology-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim has always been to find a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective method. Ranging from culturing of microbes to the futuristic biosensor technology, the methods have had this common goal. This review summarizes the recent trends and brings together methods that have been developed over the years.
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Cartilage tissue engineering: Role of mesenchymal stem cells along with growth factors & scaffolds p. 339
MB Gugjoo, Amarpal , GT Sharma, HP Aithal, P Kinjavdekar
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198724  PMID:28139532
Articular cartilage injury poses a major challenge for both the patient and orthopaedician. Articular cartilage defects once formed do not regenerate spontaneously, rather replaced by fibrocartilage which is weaker in mechanical competence than the normal hyaline cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) along with different growth factors and scaffolds are currently incorporated in tissue engineering to overcome the deficiencies associated with currently available surgical methods and to facilitate cartilage healing. MSCs, being readily available with a potential to differentiate into chondrocytes which are enhanced by the application of different growth factors, are considered for effective repair of articular cartilage after injury. However, therapeutic application of MSCs and growth factors for cartilage repair remains in its infancy, with no comparative clinical study to that of the other surgical techniques. The present review covers the role of MSCs, growth factors and scaffolds for the repair of articular cartilage injury.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Top

Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review p. 348
Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198723  PMID:28139533
Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: 'amitraz', 'poisoning', 'toxicity', 'intoxication' and 'overdose'. Articles published in a language other than English, abstracts and those not providing sufficient clinical information were excluded. Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children) of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%). Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of p53 codon 72 polymorphism on the survival outcome in advanced stage cervical cancer patients in India p. 359
Akanksha Bansal, Poulami Das, Sadhana Kannan, Umesh Mahantshetty, Rita Mulherkar
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198685  PMID:28139534
Background & objectives: The Arg>Pro polymorphism in codon 72 of p53 gene is known to affect the susceptibility of cervical cancer differently in different population worldwide although information regarding its role in determining survival status and disease outcome in patients is lacking. The present study was conducted to determine the genotype frequency and prognostic role of p53 codon 72 Arg>Pro polymorphism in patients with advanced stage cervical cancer in India. Methods: The p53 codon 72 polymorphism was determined in tumour biopsies (n = 107) and matched blood samples (n = 19) in cervical cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Effect of p53 genotype on the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was analyzed. Individual Arg or Pro alleles were studied for their significance on survival as Pro carriers (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro) versus Arg/Arg individuals or Arg carriers (Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro) versus Pro/Pro individuals. Results: The frequencies for Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes were 27.2, 49.5 and 23.3 per cent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the genotypes with respect to patients' OS or RFS. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study indicated that p53 codon 72 polymorphism might not be an independent marker in predicting clinical outcome in advanced stage cervical cancer patients. Further studies need to be done in larger samples to confirm these findings.
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Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study p. 366
Saseendran Pallikadavath, Reuben Ogollah, Abhishek Singh, Tara Dean, Ann Dewey, William Stones
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198676  PMID:28139535
Background & objectives: The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Methods: Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause <40 yr. Results: Overall, menopause prior to age 40 was reported by approximately 1.5 per cent of women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, 'scheduled caste' status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Interpretation & conclusions: Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function.
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Exploring the bio-behavioural link between stress, allostatic load & micronutrient status: A cross-sectional study among adolescent boys p. 378
Little Flower Augustine, Krishnapillai Madhavan Nair, Sylvia Fernandez Rao, Mendu Vishnu Vardhana Rao, Punjal Ravinder, Avula Laxmaiah
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198675  PMID:28139536
Background & objectives: Allostatic load (AL) is a cumulative measure of physiological deregulation and is influenced by multiple factors including nutrition. The objectives of the study were to assess AL among adolescent boys (15-19 yr) and delineate its association with psychological stress and micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted among 370 adolescent boys of five higher secondary schools from Hyderabad, India. Perceived stress, adolescent life event stress (ALES), psychological morbidity and coping were measured. Biomarkers of AL included dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 12-h urinary cortisol, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lipid profile, body mass index and blood pressure. Micronutrient status with respect to iron (haemoglobin, ferritin, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor), folate, vitamins B12, C and A were analyzed in a sub-sample of 146 boys. AL score ≥3 was calculated from eight biomarkers. Results: Fourteen per cent participants had no AL but 34.3 per cent had AL score of ≥ 3. Unadjusted means of ALES scores were significantly different (P = 0.045) among participants with low [mean, 95% confidence interval (CI): 580, 531-629] and high (663, 605-721) AL. After controlling for confounders, the means were significantly different for controllable life event sub-scale of ALES (P = 0.048). Adjusted hepcidin concentrations were significantly higher among participants with high AL (means, 95% CI, 27.2, 24.0-30.8 for high AL; 22.1, 20.2-24.2 μg/l for low AL, P = 0.014). Interpretation & conclusions: Build-up of AL was found in adolescent boys and was positively associated with life event stress. Iron nutrition and stress exhibited a positive association through hepcidin. The study provides a link between iron nutrition, physiological deregulation and stress.
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Are childhood externalizing disorders the harbinger of early-onset alcohol dependence? p. 385
Abhishek Ghosh, Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198673  PMID:28139537
Background & objectives: The subtyping of alcohol dependence (AD) into early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) subgroups has been shown to have clinical and biological validity. As externalizing disorders (EDs) predate AD, the link of ED with age of onset of alcohol dependence needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of EDs such as disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with age at onset of AD in a sample of male subjects. Methods: One hundred consecutive male subjects with AD presenting to the De-Addiction Services and an equal number of biologically unrelated non-substance-dependent control subjects were included in the study. The AD subjects were divided into EO (age of onset of AD ≤25 yr; n = 21) and LO (age of onset of AD >25 yr; n = 79). Subjects were examined for evidence of DBD and ADHD in childhood, and current ADHD using structured instruments such as Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetic of Alcoholism-IV (SSAGA-IV) and Kiddie – SADS – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). The odds ratio of association of EDs with EO and LO AD was calculated by comparing these subgroups with the biologically unrelated control group. Later, both the subgroups of alcohol dependence were compared for the presence of EDs. Results: All EDs (DBDs/childhood or adult ADHD) were more common in AD individuals as compared to the controls. However, when AD subgroups were compared with controls, the association of DBDs and ADHD reached a significant level only in the EO subgroup. A comparison of EO and LO AD showed that more EO individuals had history of both childhood disruptive disorder and ADHD compared to LO subgroup. Adult ADHD was also over-represented in EO subgroup. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed more EDs in alcohol dependent individuals compared to controls. Further, the association observed between EDs and EO alcohol dependence points towards a developmental continuum between these two conditions.
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Sexual dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent men: A study from north India p. 393
Shreyas Pendharkar, Surendra K Mattoo, Sandeep Grover
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198681  PMID:28139538
Background & objectives: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. Methods: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Participants in both the groups were assessed on Arizona Sexual experience scale (ASEX), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, patients with AD were assessed on Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) for severity of AD and revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar) to ensure that no participant was in active alcohol withdrawal state. Results: Overall, 58.4 per cent of patients in the AD group had sexual dysfunction. Among the domains, the highest frequency was seen for dysfunction for arousal (57.4%), followed by problems in desire (54.4%), erection (36.6%), satisfaction with orgasm (34.6%) and ability to reach orgasm was least affected (12.87%). The patient and control groups differed significantly in overall dyadic adjustment, in the domains of dyadic satisfaction and affective expression. Interpretation & conclusions: The finding of this study showed that a significant proportion of patients with AD has sexual dysfunction. Longitudinal studies using validated assessment tools should be done to confirm these findings.
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Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus genes in polycystic ovary syndrome aetiology among women from southern India p. 400
Battini Mohan Reddy, Uma Jyothi Kommoju, Shilpi Dasgupta, Pranavchand Rayabarapu
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198678  PMID:28139539
Background & objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive endocrine disorder of premenopausal women. Given the phenotypic overlap between PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), this study was carried out to investigate whether genes implicated in T2DM were also involved in the susceptibility to PCOS among women from southern India. Methods: A total of 248 women with PCOS and 210 healthy women as controls were genotyped for a panel of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the nine T2DM genes, such as TCF7L2, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, CDKN2A, IRS1, CAPN10 and PPARG, on Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Results: None of the 15 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with PCOS after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, either in the univariate or multivariate context. The cumulative effect of risk alleles observed with reference to T2DM was also not seen with reference to PCOS. Interpretation & conclusions: The nine T2DM genes considered in this exploratory study might not be the primary susceptibility factors for PCOS among Indian women. Our results supplement the lack of evidence of the association of T2DM genes with PCOS among the Chinese and Caucasians hinting at the possible universality of this pattern. Specifically designed comprehensive studies that include women with T2DM and PCOS are required to explore the precise role of the diabetes genes.
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Transcriptome profiling of visceral adipose tissue in a novel obese rat model, WNIN/Ob & its comparison with other animal models p. 409
Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri, Uday Kumar Putcha, Giridharan Nappan Veettil, Vajreswari Ayyalasomayajula
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198667  PMID:28139540
Background & objectives: Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We studied the differential gene expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue of a novel obese rat model, WNIN/Ob, to understand the possible underlying transcriptional changes involved in the development of obesity and associatedcomorbidities in this model. Methods: Four month old, male WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats were taken, blood was collected and tissues were dissected. Body composition analysis and adipose tissue histology were performed. Global gene expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue of lean and obese rats was studied by microarray using Affymetrix GeneChips. Results: One thousand and seventeen probe sets were downregulated and 963 probe sets were upregulated (more than two-fold) in adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob obese rats when compared to that of lean rats. Small nucleolar RNA (SnoRNA) made most of the underexpressed probe sets, whereas immune system-related genes werethe most overexpressed in the adipose tissues of obese rats. Genes coding for cytoskeletal proteinswere downregulated, whereas genes related to lipid biosynthesis were elevated in the adipose tissue of obese rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Majority of the altered genes and pathways in adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob obese rats were similar to the observations in other obese animal models and human obesity. Based on these observations, it is proposed that WNIN/Ob obese rat model may be a good model to study the mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and its comorbidities. Downregulation of SnoRNA appears to be a novel feature in this obese rat model.
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Comparative evaluation of long-term monotherapies & combination therapies in patients with chronic hepatitis B: A pilot study p. 424
Manjita Srivastava, Neha Singh, Vinod Kumar Dixit, Gopal Nath, Ashok Kumar Jain
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198674  PMID:28139541
Background & objectives: Reduction of viraemia in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues reduces fatal liver disease-related events, but development of resistance in virus presents serious clinical challenge. Therefore, comparative evaluation of prolonged antiviral monotherapy and combination therapies was prospectively studied to assess their influence on viral suppression, rapidity of response, development of drug resistance and surfacing mutants in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Methods: A total of 158 (62eAg-ve) chronic hepatitis B patients were prospectively studied for 24 months. Final analysis was performed on patients treated with lamivudine (LAM, n = 28), adefovirdipivoxil (ADV, n = 24), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, n = 26), entecavir (ETV, n = 25), LAM + ADV (n = 28) and LAM + TDF (n = 27). Quantitative hepatitis B virus DNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multiple comparisons among drugs and genotypic mutations were analyzed. Results: Progressive biochemical and virological response were noted with all the regimens at 24 months except LAM and ADV which were associated with viral breakthrough (VBT) in 46.4 and 25 per cent, respectively. Mutations: rtM204V (39.3%), M204V+L180M (10.7%) while rtA181V (8.1%) and rtN236T (8.3%) were observed with LAM and ADV regimen, respectively. LAM + ADV combination therapy revealed VBT in seven per cent of the cases without mutations whereas TDF, ETV and LAM + TDF therapies neither showed VBT nor mutations. Interpretation & conclusions: LAM was the least potent drug among all therapeutic options followed by ADV. TDF and ETV were genetically stable antivirals with a strong efficacy. Among newer combination therapies, LAM + TDF revealed more efficacy in virological remission and acted as a profound genetic barrier on long term. Hence, newer generation molecules (TDF, ETV) and effective combination therapy should be a certain choice.
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An audit of colistin use in neonatal sepsis from a tertiary care centre of a resource-limited country p. 433
Bonny Jasani, Sridharan Kannan, Ruchi Nanavati, Nithya J Gogtay, Urmila Thatte
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198682  PMID:28139542
Background & objectives: Sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a challenge for clinicians and microbiologists and has led to use of parenteral colistin. There is a paucity of data regarding safety and efficacy of intravenous colistin use in neonates. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous colistin in the treatment of neonatal sepsis. Methods: An audit of the data from neonates, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital during January 2012 to December 2012, and who received intravenous colistin was carried out. Results: Sixty two neonates received intravenous colistin (52 preterm and 10 term) for the treatment of pneumonia, bloodstream infections and meningitis. The isolated pathogens in decreasing order of frequency were Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the total 62 neonates, 41 (66.12%) survived and 21 (33.87%) died. Significantly higher mortality was observed in neonates with lower body weights (P < 0.05). A significant association of mortality was found in those with sepsis due to Klebsiella species. Only one of seven with this infection survived as against 15 of the 23 who grew other organisms [P = 0.03; crude odds ratio = 11.25 (1.2, 110.5)]. None of the neonates developed neurotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Interpretation & conclusions: This retrospective study in neonates with sepsis showed that intravenous colistin was safe and effective in the treatment of neonatal sepsis. Further, well–controlled, prospective clinical trials need to be done to corroborate these findings.
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Antibiotic resistance & pathogen profile in ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in India p. 440
Abhijit Chaudhury, A Shobha Rani, Usha Kalawat, Sachin Sumant, Anju Verma, B Venkataramana
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198679  PMID:28139543
Background & objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important hospital-acquired infection with substantial mortality. Only a few studies are available from India addressing the microbiological aspects of VAP, which have been done with small study populations. This study was carried out in the intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital to assess the profile of pathogens and to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: This was a retrospective study of clinically suspected cases of VAP. Over a three year period, a total of 247 cases in 2011, 297 in 2012 and 303 in 2013 admitted in ICUs on mechanical ventilation with clinical evidence of VAP were included in our study. The endotracheal aspirate samples from these suspected cases were subjected to quantitative culture technique, and colony count of ≥10[5] colony forming units/ml was considered significant. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the isolates was done. Results: VAP rates of 44.1, 43.8 and 26.3 were seen in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. In all the three years, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were the predominant organisms, followed by Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. Staphylococcus aureus exhibited a downwards trend in prevalence from 50.0 per cent in 2011 to 34.9 per cent in 2013. An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococci was seen from 4.3 per cent in 2012 to 8.3 per cent in 2013, while methicillin resistance amongst the S. aureus crossed the 50 per cent mark in 2013. An increasing trend in resistance was shown by Pseudomonas spp. for piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), amikacin and imipenem (IPM). For the non-fermenters, resistance frequency remained very high except for IPM (33.1%) and polymyxin-B (2.4%). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show VAP as an important problem in the ICU setting. The incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens was on the rise. The resistance pattern of these pathogens can help an institution to formulate effective antimicrobial policy. To have a comprehensive pan-India picture, multicentric studies are needed.
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A single weighting approach to analyze respondent-driven sampling data p. 447
Vadivoo Selvaraj, Kangusamy Boopathi, Ramesh Paranjape, Sanjay Mehendale
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198665  PMID:28139544
Background and objectives: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely used to sample hidden populations and RDS data are analyzed using specially designed RDS analysis tool (RDSAT). RDSAT estimates parameters such as proportions. Analysis with RDSAT requires separate weight assignment for individual variables even in a single individual; hence, regression analysis is a problem. RDS-analyst is another advanced software that can perform three methods of estimates, namely, successive sampling method, RDS I and RDS II. All of these are in the process of refinement and need special skill to perform analysis. We propose a simple approach to analyze RDS data for comprehensive statistical analysis using any standard statistical software. Methods: We proposed an approach (RDS-MOD - respondent driven sampling-modified) that determines a single normalized weight (similar to RDS II of Volz-Heckathorn) for each participant. This approach converts the RDS data into clustered data to account the pre-existing relationship between recruits and the recruiters. Further, Taylor's linearization method was proposed for calculating confidence intervals for the estimates. Generalized estimating equation approach was used for regression analysis and parameter estimates of different software were compared. Results: The parameter estimates such as proportions obtained by our approach were matched with those from currently available special software for RDS data. Interpretation & conclusions: The proposed weight was comparable to different weights generated by RDSAT. The estimates were comparable to that by RDS II approach. RDS-MOD provided an efficient and easy-to-use method of estimation and regression accounting inter-individual recruits' dependence.
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Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in rural & urban Tamil Nadu p. 460
Anu Mary Oommen, Vinod Joseph Abraham, Kuryan George, V Jacob Jose
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198668  PMID:28139545
Background & objectives: Surveillance of risk factors is important to plan suitable control measures for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The objective of this study was to assess the behavioural, physical and biochemical risk factors for NCDs in Vellore Corporation and Kaniyambadi, a rural block in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 6196 adults aged 30-64 yr, with 3799 participants from rural and 2397 from urban areas. The World Health Organization-STEPS method was used to record behavioural risk factors, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors. Results: The proportion of tobacco users (current smoking or daily use of smokeless tobacco) was 23 per cent in the rural sample and 18 per cent in the urban, with rates of smoking being similar. Ever consumption of alcohol was 62 per cent among rural men and 42 per cent among urban men. Low physical activity was seen among 63 per cent of the urban and 43 per cent of the rural sample. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was equally poor in both. In the urban sample, 54 per cent were overweight, 29 per cent had hypertension and 24 per cent diabetes as compared to 31, 17 and 11 per cent, respectively, in the rural sample. Physical inactivity was associated with hypertension, body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m[2], central obesity and dyslipidaemia after adjusting for other factors. Increasing age, male sex, BMI ≥25 kg/m[2] and central obesity were independently associated with both hypertension and diabetes. Interpretation & conclusions: Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, physical inactivity and overweight were higher in the urban area as compared to the rural area which had higher rates of smokeless tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Smoking and inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables were equally prevalent in both the urban and rural samples. There is an urgent need to address behavioural risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables through primary prevention.
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

Seroepidemiology of avian influenza H5N1, H9N2 & Newcastle disease viruses during 1954 to 1981 in India p. 472
Shailesh D Pawar, Aniruddha V Jamgaonkar, Umesh B Umarani, Sadhana S Kode
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198666  PMID:28139546
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Role of Anopheles subpictus Grassi in Japanese encephalitis virus transmission in Tirunelveli, South India p. 477
Velayutham Thenmozhi, Thiruppathi Balaji, Kasiviswanathan Venkatasubramani, Kutty Jagadeeswaran Dhananjeyan, Alagarsamy Selvam, Veeramanoharan Rajamannar, Brij Kishore Tyagi
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198684  PMID:28139547
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A need for careful consideration of bacteriophage therapy p. 482
Stephen Mathew
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198691  PMID:28139548
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Authors' response p. 484
C Kishor, RR Mishra, SK Saraf, M Kumar, AK Srivastav, G Nath
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198690  PMID:28139549
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CLINICAL IMAGES Top

Giant pleomorphic adenoma of submandibular gland p. 485
Sladjana Petrovic, Dragan Petrović
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198671  PMID:28139550
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Rhabdomyolysis with cardiac dystrophic calcification p. 487
Biplab Das, Sanjay Jain
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198670  PMID:28139551
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BOOK REVIEWS Top

Concussion p. 488
SK Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198662  
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Textbook of chronic noncommunicable diseases: The health challenge of 21st century p. 489
Shridhar Dwivedi
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198663  
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Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism p. 489
Ravinder Goswami
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198664  
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